Curating

Art Beyond the Lecture Theatre: Internships and Opportunities in the Art World

By Nina Foster, BA History of Art Graduate 2016


Studying History of Art at Oxford gave me a fascinating insight into the incredible influence museums and collections have on public interaction with art. Although working in the arts is highly competitive and funded opportunities are rare, Oxford provides the perfect support system for finding exciting internships in all manner of art institutions. I cannot speak highly enough of the wonderful opportunities OUIP (Oxford University Internship Programme) offers for arts and humanities students. Each year OUIP has hundreds of internships around the world and in the UK, all of which are funded or paid. I have been fortunate to complete two OUIP internships and I strongly recommend anyone with an interest in working in the art world to take a look at what they have to offer. The History of Art department also offers the fantastic opportunity of an internship award at Waddesdon Manor; open to any humanities student with a research focus on art.

I hope that this post offers some inspiration and guidance for any current students or graduates hoping to take the first steps towards a career in the arts.

Working Abroad at the State Hermitage Museum

In the summer following my second year at Oxford I undertook a fully funded internship at the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg with a fellow undergraduate art historian. The internship was part of OUIP and included a grant from the Higher Education Funding Council for England to support a six week period in Russia. The application process involved filling out a form and writing a 600 word personal statement. My internship at the Hermitage mainly involved the organisation of the European Day of Languages Festival 2015, which was produced in collaboration with the EU Delegation in Russia. A typical day would involve heading to the office at around 11am (Russian working hours are quite different to the UK!) to work with the rest of the team to devise marketing ideas and strategies for the festival.

marketing

Experimenting with marketing ideas: a collage of the grand staircase at the Hermitage

This experience gave me so much insight into all the other kind of work that goes on at a major museum beyond curation. I also had the opportunity to take weekly Russian language classes which really improved my confidence to speak in Russian. Also working at the Hermitage gives you free entrance to loads of arts and cultural institutions in St. Petersburg so it’s a great opportunity to explore Russia on a student budget. The team at the Hermitage was made up of inspiring like-minded young people from all around the world – many of which have become lasting friends. Living and working abroad while still at university is such an amazing opportunity and one that employers always ask me about in interviews. It demonstrates adventurousness, curiosity and adaptability so if you think that sounds like you definitely look at the international opportunities OUIP offers!

narkomfin

Exploring Moscow: Nina and Fania visiting the Narkomfin building

Revitalising Underused Spaces with Ugly Duck

Throughout my third year of studies I became increasingly interested in the use of art to bring communities together and put forward new ideas in public spaces. Not only did this become the focus of my thesis, but I also began looking for opportunities to work in this field. Again I found a brilliant opportunity through OUIP – the chance to do a paid internship with a registered charity called Ugly Duck in London. Ugly Duck’s mission is an unusual but exciting idea – to revitalise underused spaces in overcrowded London. Ugly Duck repurposes empty buildings by opening them up for commercial venue hire for instance for photoshoots or filming. The spaces are also used by emerging artists, directors, activists or dancers through their biannual creative season. As with my Hermitage application I had to fill out a form and write a personal statement, I was also invited for an interview in London. I found this interview quite challenging as the team at Ugly Duck really wanted to know if I had done my research on the position, the organisation and whether I had any bright ideas for their work.

uglyduck

The Ugly Duck Warehouse: one of my colleagues chatting to a potential client

My internship at Ugly Duck ran from July to September and was honestly an eye-opening experience. My role as City Hunt Coordinator focused on the development of Ugly Duck’s public spaces project. City Hunt is a hyper-local heritage game that operates on digital and analogue platforms. My work involved data analysis, securing new business partnerships and sourcing public funding by writing funding applications. Additionally, as Ugly Duck is run by a small team of only three staff I assisted in the day-to-day running of the business by taking bookings, managing the venue and liaising with artists. The breadth and variety of exciting responsibilities Ugly Duck offered me has given me such valuable experience for future employment and has inspired me to focus on a career that uses art for social impact.

Curating and Cataloguing at Waddesdon Manor

Each year there is a remarkable opportunity for an Oxford humanities student (BA, MA, PhD) to undertake a funded internship at Waddesdon Manor – a Rothschild chateau in Buckinghamshire now owned by the National Trust. Waddesdon is a truly unique place and the internship offers a very rare opportunity to assist in curation at an entry-level position. The position includes accommodation in a beautiful cottage in Waddesdon village as well as a bursary. The application process involved writing a statement about why I was interested in the role. I am particularly interested in the contemporary art at Waddesdon so that was the focus of my application. Also you have to submit written references from two tutors which I left until the very last minute so I would definitely recommend getting organised and giving them at least a week to do this! After submitting my application I had an interview in the History of Art department which was actually a really enjoyable experience.

waddesdon

Not a bad office! The very grand approach to Waddesdon Manor

I started the Waddesdon internship in September 2016 and have so far found the experience very rewarding. I mainly work with the wonderful and inspiring senior curator Dr. Juliet Carey on the preparation of exhibition proposals and research projects. I have thoroughly enjoyed working with contemporary artists to help them explore the collection and produce work inspired by it. I have also gained experience of working with the collection management database which is a really essential skill for working in museums. I’ve met so many different people here who all share the same passion for Waddesdon and I have to say I now also share that passion!

diningroom

The incredible collections at Waddesdon include 18th century French decorative arts of the highest quality

My work experience seems only to have scratched the surface of the complexity and diversity of opportunities within the art world. The great thing about working in the arts is that there is no graduate scheme system, rather you have to find opportunities and devise your own career path. This is honestly really exciting and has led me to places I could never have imagined working. So, if I can offer any advice it’s to think broadly and look at opportunities that take you out of your comfort zone – you’ll probably find them through Oxford’s career network!


Nina completed her BA History of Art at the Department in 2016. She is currently  undertaking the Waddesdon Internship organised in collaboration with the History of Art Department.

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Inside Christ Church Picture Gallery

By Jacqueline Thalmann, Curator of the Picture Gallery


Studying in Oxford also means access to a number of world class museums, collections and objects – some of them better known than others. The lesser known ones have the stigma of inaccessibility attached, but it is often just a matter of less prominent placement and publicity and the uncomfortable fact, voiced by Goethe, that we only see what we know.

Have you, for example, seen Giampietrino’s important copy of Leonardo’s Last Supper or Mark Wallinger’s impressive sculpture Y, both in Magdalen College, or the El Greco in the chapel of New College? These are overlooked objects that surround us – just waiting to be noticed and seen.

Christ Church Picture Gallery and its collection somewhat share this fate – even though to a much lesser degree. However, until the opening of Pembroke College’s art gallery in 2013 – showing their remarkable JCR’s collection of mainly British 20th century art – Christ Church was the only Oxford (and Cambridge) college with a dedicated and open-to-the-public gallery and a world-class collection to fill it. In fact, Christ Church can be proud to have opened the first permanent public art gallery in Britain. It opened its doors in 1768, with the first catalogue of the paintings being published in 1771. The Ashmolean did not yet have paintings and the Bodleian’s art collection consisted almost exclusively of portraits, whose main pull was to entertain the visitors with the likenesses of the famous and infamous sitters, rather than their artistic execution.

0803_pg-137view-to-drawings-galleryInterior Views of the Red Gallery and Picture Gallery © Christ Church Picture Gallery

But the ‘art scene’ in Oxford changed when Christ Church accepted an exceptional bequest of almost 2,000 drawings and over 200 paintings by one of its alumni, General John Guise (1682-1765). The collection consisted mainly of Italian Old Masters, including all of the famous names: Leonardo, Raphael, Michelangelo, Carracci, Tintoretto, Veronese et al, especially among the drawings and some of the less famous and anonymous masters, whose works are no less enticing – visually and academically. The acceptance of this vast number of works also meant that Christ Church took on the responsibility of caring for them and showing them. They were not hung in private or semi-private college rooms, as would have been the easy option, but from the beginning, the idea was to share the works by displaying them together in a dedicated gallery space. This was ground-breaking: for the first time one could see paintings and drawings by the great Italian masters without having to travel to the continent or having to gain access to private residences and collections.

jbs-62v-webMichelangelo, Study for a left leg (JBS62v) © Christ Church Picture Gallery

John Guise’s awareness of the importance of the visual arts had been fuelled by one of his Oxford teachers, Dean Henry Aldrich, but also by writers and collectors like Jonathan Richardson who wrote in 1715:

” supposing two Men perfectly equal in all other respects, only one is conversant with the works of the best Masters […] and the other not; the former shall necessarily gain the Ascendant, and have nobler Ideas, […]; he shall be a more Ingenious, and a Better Man”

These thoughts have become even more poignant today in view of recent developments in art education. But let’s continue with the pioneering history of the collection: The then new Christ Church library, which was designed with an open loggia on the ground floor, was modified and the loggia was abandoned in favour of creating the necessary wall space to hang the incoming collection. This newly developed space was called the Picture Gallery (today it is known as the Lower Library) and was open to the public. The library itself (today known as the Upper Library), was the actual college library and only open to members of Christ Church and by permission. It is important to stress these distinctions in order to fully appreciate the sagacity and unprecedented act of – not only incorporating art into the Oxford education – but extending that to a wider audience.  We even have a caricature by Thomas Rowlandson of an early guide to the collection – Mrs Showwell (1807).

mrs-showwellThomas Rowlandson (after John Nixon), Mrs Showwell © Christ Church Picture Gallery

Establishing the gallery, attracted other gifts and bequests: The Continence of Scipio, an important early van Dyck, was added in 1809, bequeathed by Lord Frederick Campbell; two gifts of Early Italian paintings, by the pioneering collectors W T H Fox Strangways (1828) and Walter Savage Landor (1897) widened the scope of the collection and more recently we added a collection of British 18th century drinking glasses and Russian metal icons to it.

van Dyck, Anthony, 1599-1641; The Continence of ScipioAnthony van Dyck, The Continence of Scipio (JBS 245) © Christ Church Picture Gallery

The growing number of paintings and the library’s need for more space heightened the need for a new dedicated gallery building and this, the current building, sensitively designed by Powell and Moya, opened in 1968. It was almost too sensitively designed, without any façade or wall visible from the outside, the gallery sits, nearly undetectable, within the gardens and grounds of Christ Church. This outwards invisibility almost conceals its content: one of the most important Old Master collections in Britain. But, after finding the rabbit hole through which to squeeze (the entrance in Canterbury Quad), the visitor resurfaces in a light, modern and cleverly designed building to encounter some of the great masterpieces of Western art: be it Annibale Carracci’s Butcher’s Shop, a highly visceral, early (the first) monumental genre painting or the cerebral Wounded Centaur by Filippino Lippi, or Hugo van der Goes ‘religious close-up’ – or one of our drawings exhibitions (at the moment, until the 30th January 2017, Drawing in Red, an exploration of red chalk drawing).

Carracci, Annibale, 1560-1609; The Butcher's ShopAnnibale Carracci, The Butcher’s Shop (JBS181) © Christ Church Picture Gallery

Having said all this, if you have not been visited the Picture Gallery, yet, do drop by. You will find us at the back gate of Christ Church, off Oriel Square. The porter at the gate can point you in the right direction – and while there is a small entrance charge – current and former members of the University and Oxford Brookes have free access, just show your University card at the gallery entrance desk.


More information about the Picture Gallery can be found here.

Trusted Source: A New Oxford University and National Trust Collaboration

By Alice Purkiss, Knowledge Transfer Partnership Associate, University of Oxford and National Trust


stoweStowe Gardens © Dr Oliver Cox

At the beginning of February the University embarked upon a new collaboration with the National Trust in a bid to enhance visitor experience at the charity’s historic properties and outdoor spaces through research.

Funded by the AHRC and the National Trust, the Trusted Source project is the culmination of a series of successful collaborations running over the past five years between the University and the Trust, coordinated by Oxford’s Heritage Engagement Fellow, Dr Oliver Cox. Having studied at the History of Art Department for my MSt, I was delighted to return to the University to develop this exciting new partnership, and to work with colleagues old and new at both institutions.

Trusted Source has been commissioned as a Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP), an Innovate UK scheme devised to encourage businesses to innovate and grow. It does this by linking them with a university and a graduate to work on a specific project. Usually awarded to the science and industry sectors, this is one of the few heritage-based KTPs funded in the initiative’s 40 year history, and the first awarded to both the Humanities Division at Oxford and the National Trust.

What is Trusted Source?
The aim of the partnership is to create Trusted Source; a new online resource featured on the National Trust’s website containing concise, engaging and accessible articles about history, culture and the national environment that draw out connections between collections, places, properties and people. Crowdsourced from university researchers and National Trust specialists, this resource aims to enhance visitor experience of National Trust properties and places. Furthermore, in doing this we hope to encourage more meaningful public engagement with, and enhanced understanding of, Britain’s wider cultural heritage and natural environment.

As a key advocate for the project, the Trust’s Director General, Dame Helen Ghosh, states:
We want to tell the stories of the collections and properties in our care in an engaging, accurate and inspiring way. Using the latest academic research, Trusted Source will help us enhance the experience we give our members and visitors, uncover new information and deepen our understanding of the heritage in our care. As well as enriching our interpretation at properties, the resources created during this important collaborative partnership will be freely available online for everyone to explore.

Benefits & Opportunities at Oxford
It’s important to stress that the National Trust and its visitors are not the only intended beneficiaries of Trusted Source; the opportunities the project offers to researchers here at Oxford are significant too, and a particular consideration of mine. In addition to providing research and networking opportunities with a leading cultural institution, Trusted Source offers its contributors meaningful work experience and visibility within a highly competitive sector that is increasingly hard to come by.

The articles are authored, and contributors are given an ‘Author Profile’ page on the National Trust’s website featuring a short biography and a list of the articles they have written. With the Trust’s website receiving over 11 million page hits every year from over 2 million unique visitors, becoming a contributor can significantly boost online research profiles, offer valuable Public Engagement with Research (PER) experience, and enable researchers to experiment with communicating their work to a new and diverse audience. Academics from across the University from Masters level upwards are invited to contribute, be it with one Trusted Source article, or 20!

First Steps
To begin the article commissioning process, the first call-out for researchers was devised to support the current Landscape Programme at Stowe Gardens in Buckinghamshire, an initiative comprising of fifty four tasks taking place over five years to return the gardens to their former glory. Highlights include the return of missing statues, monuments and paths, and the opening of parts of the gardens not currently open to the public. In support of this, Trusted Source involvement sought to assist in unravelling the puzzling circumstances surrounding Stowe’s Gothic Cross, a Coade Stone monument placed in the landscape in the early 19th century and later destroyed, it is believed, by a falling tree.

stowe-basestowe-fragment
Left: The base of Stowe’s Gothic Cross, 1991. Right: Fragment of the Gothic Cross. Photographs © National Trust.

In March, University researchers and National Trust staff attended a workshop at St John’s College at which Trusted Source was introduced and opportunities for academic research on the Gothic Cross detailed. A variety of articles were written as a result of this workshop, including texts on lost medieval villages, Whig landscapes, Gothic Revival, Coade stone and the meaning of patriotism, to name a few. Each article uses Stowe as one of a number of examples of the feature or question being explored, therefore these short articles connect up the National Trust’s portfolio of properties, places and collections in new and surprising ways. See the articles with the corresponding ‘Author Profiles’ on the Trust’s website here: www.nationaltrust.org.uk/ktp

What’s next?
Over the coming months the Trusted Source project team will continue to foster strong bonds between these two leading organisations and commission engaging and accessible articles which support a whole host of Trust properties, places, and projects; from stately homes, working farms and natural landscapes, to Trust-wide programming themes. Articles will be commissioned through a variety of means, including events and workshops based upon specific National Trust projects and themes, through general article writing workshops hosted at the History of Art Department, and by embedding Trusted Source into Humanities doctoral training.

The project’s legacy beyond the two years of the KTP is highly significant, and a central consideration for both institutions. By formalising a clear methodology for sharing knowledge between these two leading organisations, we hope to establish a blueprint for collaboration that can be adopted by other academic institutions and heritage organisations internationally, thereby encouraging further stories about places to be told and enriched through research.

Interested in becoming a Trusted Source contributor?
For more information on Trusted Source including details on how to contribute, please visit http://torch.ox.ac.uk/trusted-source or email alice.purkiss@history.ox.ac.uk.


Alice completed her Masters in the History of Art and Visual Culture at the Department in 2012. Before this role Alice was a Curatorial Trainee at The Charleston Trust, an experience which she wrote about for the blog last year.

Crowd-sourcing historic images with HEIR – 5 months on

The Historic Environment Image Resource crowd-sourcing project HEIR went online 5 months ago. This post is a round-up of what we have learnt about the image collections, crowdsourcing, and public engagement since then. It is also a post about why it is important to re-introduce forgotten photographs back into the research resource.

 

Fig 1 lantern slides

 

Old teaching slide collections are continuing to be under threat of being de-commissioned. Where lack of space, finances, image decay, copyright issues, and the perceived redundancy of old media forms in the digital age are combined, it has often been too difficult for holders to justify their retention. (See, for example, Krivickas, J. and Meyer, E. ‘Future or fate: the slide collection of the Robert Deshon and Karl J. Schlachter Library for Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning’, where although only 26% of the images were available digitally in ARTstor, the complete lack of source information about the images led to the decommissioning and de-accession of the entire slide library).

 

Fig 2 discussion and upload HEIRtagger

 

What has been perceived to be an insurmountable problem by some, HEIR has seen as an opportunity: to challenge perceived wisdom, re-assess redundant technology, and find new ways of re-entering a forgotten resource into public and scholarly debate. Only 5 months into crowd-sourcing, it has already turned out that the old lantern slide photographic collections of the Oxford University Department for the History of Art, the Schools of Archaeology, Geography and Plant Science, the Ashmolean Museum and Harris Manchester College were well worth holding on to long after they became ‘redundant’. 131 taggers have tagged over 600 images and generated over 1000 discussions, many of them containing specialist knowledge, research, or identifying unknown locations of our images. Some have even commented on having seen similar images before and chasing up references. And HEIR has not even been promoted publicly yet.

What is more, scanning and combining the images of different Departments, Divisions, Colleges and Museums on one accessible platform – HEIRdams – has enhanced the cross-divisional and multi-disciplinary research potential of the resource.

 

Fig 3 page from HEIR database

 

For departments, the benefits of participating in HEIR are clear: they are able to maximise and capitalise on having this material available in the digital format for the first time. Within the History of Art Department, for example, the immediate benefits of getting involved included exciting re-discoveries, such as some rather lovely hand-coloured slides; interesting exchanges over Twitter; or the inspiration for a piece by one of the students who worked on the project that you can read about on the History of Art and Visual Resources Centre blog.

 

 

Once online, departments are rapidly capitalising on the database in their own ways and thinking laterally: the Ashmolean Museum was delighted to project a tailored sequence of slides as part of the Being Human Festival in November 2015, exposing their ‘old’, ‘redundant’ teaching materials to a brand new engaged audience.

 

Fig 6 Ashmolean exhibition

 

Beyond Oxford, Royal Holloway University of London has initiated a whole new research project ‘Site seeing: Pompeii in 19th and early 20th-century lantern slides’ based on these re-discovered images.

HEIR’s Mobile re-photography App has added an additional layer of interest and engagement with the images, allowing our students, researchers, and the public to explore the old images in their modern setting.

Others have used the app to explore the relationship between image and photographer – see Dina Akhmadeeva being re-photographed as photographer captured in an historic image of Venice.

 

Fig 7 AHistc4d5img169c Venice

 

Fig 8 Dina's rephotography

 

Perhaps the most surprising element of crowd-sourcing for us have been the discussion pages on HEIRtagger. While we envisaged some comments by the public, we had not anticipated the sheer scale of interest generated by the images, the breadth and depth of knowledge we are being presented with, or the amount of time and research taggers are prepared to spend on the images that engage their particular interest. Our ‘crowd’ are our co-researchers, and the next phase of the project will include thinking about how to bring their wide-ranging research into the database in the most useful and accessible way.

 

Fig 9 discussion

 

Finally, we thoroughly enjoyed presenting a paper in collaboration with Victoria Brown from the VRC (Visual Resources Centre) on the project at the DCDC15 conference – the twitter comments after the event suggested that our work has provided food for thought for other institutions with comparable collections.

Old teaching photographic collections offer so many possibilities for research, including the history of disciplines, representations of the past, links between photography and art, and the relationships between art, architecture, tourism and travel. We hope the HEIR project will inspire new research in the History of Art – let us know if you have made use of these rescued images!

 

HEIR is based at the Institute of Archaeology, Oxford and directed by Dr Sally Crawford and Dr Katharina Ulmschneider. 

A Medieval Ivory Crosier-Head in the Ashmolean: an object (essay) of inspiration

By Henry Tudor-Pole

What do tenth-century Egypt, an Anglo-Saxon beast-head and the Jesuits have in common?

Perhaps many things, but for one, all their influence can be found on this thirteenth-century ivory crosier-head that I have been studying as part of the undergraduate History of Art course at Oxford. In their first year, students are required to write a 5000-word project about an object, image or building situated in Oxford, which they research and then use to construct an argument or historical discussion. This is called the Object Essay. Before starting I did not have much of an idea about what I was going to look at, but I had developed a taste for medieval things, a common reaction in migrants to the carved stones of Oxford, and so I headed into the Ashmolean’s ‘England 400-1600’ gallery and eventually found the ivory crosier-head [Fig. 1]. A crosier is the staff of office held by a bishop or an abbot and carried ceremonially as a symbol of their pastoral care, and the crosier-head is the most visible and decorated part, fixed to the top.

Ashmolean crozier

Fig. 1: The ‘Ashmolean crosier’, Ashmolean Museum accession no. AN1685A.600

In its display cabinet, I liked the look of the object. It stood out as a beautiful piece of sculpture, its form seemed full of symbolic meaning bound to rituals that were at the centre of medieval Christian life, and so I thought I might be able to extract 5000 words’ worth of decent essay from it. The description in the gallery said it probably came from the twelfth or thirteenth century, but they were not sure exactly from where or when it originated. It had been donated to the museum in 1683, the year of its founding, accompanied by the rumour that it had once belonged to Saint Augustine of Hippo.

Professor Gervase Rosser and Dr Eleanor Standley supervised my research and gave me invaluable advice and lots of readings to get started on what would turn out to be a complicated object. The original ivory carving appears to have been modified at least twice, with metal additions such as the figure of Christ on the cross, which does not match the original ivory one, and the ‘IHS’ mount at the top of the volute. So, following Eleanor’s recommendation, I adopted an approach to the essay where I would construct an ‘object timeline’ and trace the history of the crosier-head from the time of its creation to its present status as a historical artefact in a museum, addressing its different contexts, meanings and functions and how they shifted over time.

The first step was to read the literature that already existed on the object, the most immediate of which was Jeremy Warren’s catalogue of the medieval sculpture in the Ashmolean. This suggested that the crosier-head was made in southern Italy in the thirteenth century, and he had a good bibliography that I could use to take my research further. Unfortunately, it turned out that a large number of Warren’s references extended beyond English scholarship, and after fighting my way through Les Ivoires Gothiques Français, I had to admit defeat at the hands of Romanische Leuchter und Gefässe Giessgefässe der Gotik. Nonetheless I plodded on with the research, and, realising that a large amount of the work would involve simply locating the origins of the crosier-head, I soon found myself studying the stylistic influences on it, many of which Warren had usefully pointed to in his study of the object.

Siculo-Arabic crosier head

Fig. 2: ‘Siculo-Arabic’ crosier-head, 12th century, from Cott, P.B., Siculo-Arabic Ivories, (Princeton, 1939) pl.15

The earliest crosiers with a lamb and dragon motif such as ours come from twelfth-century Sicily, and were probably made by craftsmen within a Muslim community in Palermo that had been there since the island was part of the Fatimid Caliphate, and who were tolerated by the Normans who conquered it in around 1072. The shape of the lamb on these early crosiers strongly recalls an Islamic motif of a gazelle, attacked by a bird, and with some of the Sicilian crosiers it appears to be a gazelle rather than a lamb contained within the ivory volute [Fig. 2]. This shows that the craftsmen who made these objects used designs they already knew when making products for the new, Christian market. This crosier design where a lamb and dragon face each other within a volute quickly spread across Europe, and I found many examples that came either from Italy or from northern regions such as Saxony, northern France or England. Italian crosiers were often painted and in many of the Sicilian crosiers visible traces remain. There is none on our crosier-head, which relies more on carving for its ornamentation, such as in the torsion of the neck of the lamb and the intricate head of the beast, than either the Sicilian crosiers, or most Italian crosiers made from the twelfth to the fourteenth centuries.

Stone beast-head

Fig. 3: Stone Beast-Head, 10th century, Deerhurst, from G. Zarnecki, Later English Romanesque Sculpture 1140-1210, (London, 1953), pl.8

The linear style of ornamentation on the head of the dragon particularly recalls an Anglo-Saxon beast-head in Deerhurst, Gloucestershire [Fig. 3], and the beast on the Alfred Jewel, which is displayed in the same room in the Ashmolean as the crosier-head.  There is an image of the Hellmouth in the Winchester Bible that also resembles the beast on the crosier-head, and these similarities suggested to me that the crosier may have originated in England, or had at least been made with strong influence from there. However, the itinerant nature of craftsmen around cities in northern Europe makes locating the exact place of origin notoriously difficult with medieval ivory carvings.

I continued trying to locate the origins of the object, and also traced a conjectural history, where the crosier-head was retained after the death of its original ecclesiastical owner, became a devotional object and underwent additions in metal, to add to its impressiveness. The small metal figure of St Paul on the obverse has had his face rubbed away by a pious touch, and the presence of the Jesuit trigram ‘IHS’ hints at their involvement in the counter-reformation. What struck me is that within the crosier-head is contained influence from across Europe, and beyond. It is the product of the cosmopolitan nature both of the clergy, and also an artisanal workforce, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and so it is a good advertisement for the way the Catholic Church helped peoples within Europe to intermingle in the middle ages. Therefore the crosier-head’s history, whether or not this was known during the Reformation, makes its function as an agent of Catholic resistance highly appropriate, and the object is much more powerful as a result.

Henry Tudor-Pole is a BA History of Art student at the University of Oxford who has just successfully completed his first year